The Labrador Retriever (also Labrador, or Lab for short) is one of several kinds of retriever, a type of gun dog. The Labrador, once known as the Lesser Newfoundland, is the most popular breed of dog (by registered ownership) in the world and is by a large margin the most popular breed by registration in the United States (since 1991), and the United Kingdom.
It is also the most popular breed of assistance dog in the United States, Australia, and many other countries, as well as being widely used by police and other official bodies for their detection and working abilities. They are exceptionally affable, gentle, intelligent, energetic, and good-natured, and Labradors are generally considered good companions for people of all ages (due to a high level of patience and tolerance for children), making them both excellent companions and working dogs. With training, the Labrador is one of the most dependable, obedient, and multitalented breeds in the world.
The "Labradoodle" is a popular "designer dog" that combines a Labrador with a Poodle, to create a hybrid that is more suited to allergy sufferers.
Some assistant-dog groups use Golden Retriever / Labrador Retriever hybrids (officially called a Golden Labrador Retriever) as they have found it can produce a dog with a more suitable temperament. It is important to use dogs from good stocks since crossbreeds are not immune to such problems and since Golden Retrievers and Labradors have similar health problems.
The assistance dog organization Mira utilizes Labrador-Bernese Mountain Dog crosses ("Labernese") with success.
Nell - A St. John's Dog circa 1856.
The modern labrador's ancestors originated on the island of Newfoundland, now part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The breed emerged over time from the St. John's Water Dog, also an ancestor of the Newfoundland dog (to which the Labrador is closely related), through ad-hoc breedings by early settlers in the mid to late 16th century. The original forebears of the St. John's dog have variously been suggested to be crossbreeds of the black St. Hubert's hound from France, working water dogs from Portugal, old European pointer breeds, and dogs belonging to the indigenous peoples of the area.
From the St. John's Dog, two breeds emerged; the larger was used for hauling and evolved into the large and gentle Newfoundland dog, likely as a result of breeding with mastiffs brought to the island by the generations of Portuguese fishermen who had been fishing offshore since the 1400s.
The smaller short-coat retrievers used for retrieval and pulling in nets from the water were the forebears of the Labrador Retriever. The white chest, feet, chin, and muzzle characteristic of the St. John's Dog often appears in Lab mixes, and will occasionally manifest in Labs as a small white spot on the chest or stray white hairs on the feet or muzzle.
The St. John's area of Newfoundland was settled mainly by the English and Irish. Local fishermen originally used the St. John's dog to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. A number of these were brought back to the Poole area of England in the early 1800s, then the hub of the Newfoundland fishing trade, by the gentry, and became prized as sporting and waterfowl hunting dogs.
A few kennels breeding these grew up in England; at the same time, a combination of sheep protection policy (Newfoundland) and rabies quarantine (England) led to their gradual demise in their country of origin.
A surviving picture of Buccleuch Avon (b.1885), the foundational dog of many modern Labradors.
The first and second Earls of Malmesbury, who bred for duck shooting on his estate, and the 5th and 6th Dukes of Buccleuch, and youngest son Lord George William Montagu-Douglas-Scott, was instrumental in developing and establishing the modern Labrador breed in nineteenth-century England. The dogs Avon ("Buccleuch Avon") and Ned are given by Malmesbury to assist the Duke of Buccleuch's breeding program in the 1880s are usually considered the ancestors of all modern Labradors.
Two early descriptions exist. In 1822, explorer W.E. Cormack crossed the island of Newfoundland on foot. In his journal, he wrote "The dogs are admirably trained as retrievers in fowling, and are otherwise useful.....The smooth or short-haired dog is preferred because in frosty weather the long-haired kind becomes encumbered with ice on coming out of the water."
Another early report by Colonel Hawker described the dog as "by far the best for any kind of shooting. He is generally black and no bigger than a Pointer, very fine in legs, with short, smooth hair and does not carry his tail so much curled as the other; is extremely quick, running, swimming and fighting....and their sense of smell is hard to be credited...."
There is some confusion in the naming of the early breed; the breed we now know as the Labrador Retriever was originally called the St. John's dog (from which it emerged), or lesser Newfoundland, but these were also considered distinct breeds by other sources. Other origins suggested for the name include the Spanish or Portuguese word for rural/agricultural workers, Portuguese "lavradores" or Spanish "labradors," and the village of Castro Laboreiro in Portugal whose herding and guard dogs bear a "striking resemblance" to Labradors.
The first written reference to the breed was in 1814 ("Instructions to Young Sportsmen" by Colonel Peter Hawker), the first painting in 1823 ("Cora. A Labrador Bitch" by Edwin Landseer), and the first photograph in 1856 (the Earl of Home's dog "Nell", described both as a Labrador and a St. Johns dog).
By 1870 the name Labrador Retriever became common in England. The first yellow Labrador on record was born in 1899 (Ben of Hyde, kennels of Major C.J. Radclyffe), and the breed was recognized by the Kennel Club in 1903. The first American Kennel Club (AKC) registration was in 1917. The chocolate Labrador emerged in the 1930s, although liver spotted pups were documented as being born at the Buccleuch kennels in 1892. The St. John's dog survived until the early 1980s, the last two individuals being photographed in old age around 1981.
Ancestral chocolate and butterscotch-yellow colors (sometimes called "liver" or "golden") were noted in the original St. John's dogs as early as 1807 when the Canton shipwrecked carrying some St. John's dogs for the Earl of Malmesbury. Two dogs were later found, one black and one chocolate, evidence that chocolate had been a color in the original St. John's dogs. Yellow and chocolate pups, and occasional black and tan or brindling, would occasionally reappear (although often culled) until finally gaining acceptance in the cases of chocolate and yellow or being mostly bred out of the breed in the cases of black-and-tan and brindled, although until the 20th-century black was the preferred color.
The first recognized yellow Labrador was Ben of Hyde, born in 1899, and chocolate labs became more established in the 1930s.
Ben of Hyde (b.1899), the first recognized yellow Labrador.; Yellow (and related shades)
In the early years of the breed through to the mid-20th century, Labradors of a shade we would now call "yellow" were a dark, almost butterscotch, color (visible in early yellow Labrador photographs). The shade was known as "Golden" until required to be changed by the UK Kennel Club, because "Gold" was not a color. Over the 20th century, a preference for far lighter shades of yellow through to cream prevailed, until today most yellow labs are of this shade.
Interest in the darker shades of gold and fox red was re-established by English breeders in the 1980s, and two dogs were instrumental in this change: Balrion King Frost (black, born approx. 1976) who consistently sired "very dark yellow" offspring and is credited as having "the biggest influence in the re-development of the fox red shade", and his great-grandson, the likewise famous Wynfaul Tabasco (b.1986), described as "the father of the modern fox red Labrador", and the only modern fox red Show Champion in the UK. Other dogs, such as Red Alert and Scrimshaw Placido Flamingo, are also credited with greatly passing on the genes into more than one renowned bloodline.
Jack Vanderwyk traces the origins of all Chocolate labradors listed on the LabradorNet database (some 34,000 labradors dogs of all shades) to eight original bloodlines. However, the shade was not seen as a distinct color until the 20th century; before then according to Vanderwyk, such dogs can be traced but were not registered. A degree of crossbreeding with Flatcoat or Chesapeake Bay retrievers was also documented in the early 20th century, before recognition. Chocolate labradors were also well established in the early 20th century at the kennels of the Earl of Feversham, and Lady Ward of Chiltonfoliat.
The bloodlines as traced by Vanderwyk each lead back to three black labradors in the 1880s—Buccleuch Avon (m), and his sire and dam, Malmesbury Tramp (m), and Malmesbury June (f). Morningtown Tobla is also named as an important intermediary, and according to the studbook of Buccleuch Kennels, the chocolates in that kennel came through FTW Peter of Faskally (1908).
Labradors are a well-balanced, friendly, and versatile breed, adaptable to a wide range of functions as well as making very good pets. As a rule, they are not excessively prone to being territorial, pining, insecure, aggressive, destructive, hypersensitive, or other difficult traits which sometimes manifest in a variety of breeds, and as the name suggests, they are excellent retrievers.
As an extension of this, they instinctively enjoy holding objects and even hands or arms in their mouths, which they can do with great gentleness (a Labrador can carry an egg in its mouth without breaking it). They are also known to have a very soft feel to the mouth, as a result of being bred to retrieve games such as waterfowl. They are prone to chewing objects (though they can be trained out of this behavior). The Labrador Retriever's coat repels water to some extent, thus facilitating the extensive use of the dog in waterfowl hunting.
Labradors have a reputation as a very mellow breed and an excellent family dog (including a good reputation with children of all ages and other animals), but some lines (particularly those that have continued to be bred specifically for their skills at working in the field rather than for their appearance) are particularly fast and athletic.
Their fun-loving boisterousness and lack of fear may require training and firm handling at times to ensure it does not get out of hand—an uncontrolled adult can be quite problematic.
Females may be slightly more independent than males. Labradors mature at around three years of age; before this time they can have a significant degree of puppyish energy, often mislabelled as being hyperactive. Because of their enthusiasm, leash training early on is suggested to prevent pulling when full-grown. Labs often enjoy retrieving a ball endlessly and other forms of activity (such as agility, frisbee, or flyball). Reflecting on their retrieving bloodlines, almost every Lab loves playing in water or swimming.
Although they will sometimes bark at noise, especially noise from an unseen source ("alarm barking"), Labs are usually not noisy or territorial. They are often very easygoing and trusting with strangers, and therefore are not usually suitable as guard dogs.
Labradors have a well-known reputation for appetite, and some individuals may be highly indiscriminate, eating digestible and non-food objects alike. They are persuasive and persistent in requesting food. For this reason, the Labrador owner must carefully control his/her dog's food intake to avoid obesity and its associated health problems (see below).
The steady temperament of Labs and their ability to learn to make them an ideal breed for search and rescue, detection, and therapy work. Their primary working role in the field continues to be that of a hunting retriever.
Labradors are not especially renowned for escapology. They do not typically jump high fences or dig. Because of their personalities, some Labs climb and/or jump for their amusement. As a breed, they are highly intelligent and capable of intense single-mindedness and focus if motivated or their interest is caught. Therefore, with the right conditions and stimuli, a bored Labrador could "turn into an escape artist par excellence".
Labradors as a breed are curious, exploratory and love company, following both people and interesting scents for food, attention, and novelty value. In this way, they can often "vanish" or otherwise become separated from their owners with little fanfare. They are also popular dogs if found, and at times may be stolen. Because of this, several dog clubs and rescue organizations (including the UK's Kennel Club) consider it good practice that Labradors be microchipped, with the owner's name and address also on their collar and tags.
Labradors are a very popular selection for use as guide dogs. Labradors are an intelligent breed with a good work ethic and generally good temperaments (breed statistics show that 91.5% of Labradors who were tested passed the American Temperament Test.) Common working roles for Labradors include hunting, tracking, and detection (they have a great sense of smell which helps when working in these areas), disabled assistance, carting, and therapy work. Approximately 60–70% of all guide dogs in the United States are Labradors; other common breeds are Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs.
The high intelligence, initiative, and self-direction of Labradors in working roles are evinced by individuals such as Endal, who during a 2001 emergency is believed to be the first dog to have placed an unconscious human being in the recovery position without prior training, then obtaining the human's mobile phone, "thrusting" it by their ear on the ground, then fetching their blanket, before barking at nearby dwellings for assistance. Several Labradors have also taught themselves to assist their owner in removing money and credit cards from ATMs without prior training.
It is often said that the first experiences are recorded in our memory and that -I venture- consciously or unconsciously determine our relationship with objects and/or people known through them. It is precisely the memory of one of them that prompts me to write this short article, hoping that it will help that neophyte in the canine world who has decided to enter it by listening exclusively to his heart.
Thanks to a certain worm eager for knowledge that my teachers knew how to infect me with, I decided while I was studying ethology to enter the professional world of dogs through the so-called “small door”: the walker; an activity that would allow me to gain experience in dealing with foreign canines and –the terror of terrors- with their owners.
On the big day of the debut, I rang the intercom of a flat in an apartment building, where I was greeted by an upper-middle-aged lady with a rather slight physical complexion and a small Maltese bichon who looked at me suspiciously from his padded bed. pink, in the middle of a fluffy rug that was also pink, and stuffed into a colored coat…yes, indeed: pink.
To my quick, inexperienced look, the little dog perfectly matched the environment and its owner. We turned around, stopped by the barbershop where he had his hair cut and styled (with a pink tail on his head, needless to say), and headed back to his house.
Until then, all is good. The curious thing appeared later, when through the conversation the subject of my studies came up and the consequent talk about dogs in which, to my astonishment, the lady referred to being worried about security issues and that to remedy them she wanted to buy nothing less than ... a rottweiler!
As my training had just begun, I did not dare to give him my opinion and left after wishing him luck, between mental images of a 1.50-meter tall lady being dragged by a 50-kilo big dog, and a Maltese bichon snack at the drop of a hat...
The saying goes that "Nothing is new under the sun" and certainly much has already been written about the difficulty involved in choosing a dog to take home.
Antonio Pozuelos, in his article "I'm going to buy a dog!", gives a good account of the most important issues: the objective for which we want it, its character, our own, our training and leadership skills, etc.; so I do not see the need to redound in them.
However, and acknowledging my rookie temerity, I want to draw the reader's attention to another way of looking at these issues: the point of view of our possible future friend.
It is well known that the different breeds of dogs have different levels of skills that make them appropriate for certain activities; These aptitudes are genetically transmitted and derived on the one hand from natural selection, and on the other from the enormous interference that the hand of Man has had in their development through artificial selection.
We wanted a guard dog, and we strengthened its prey and defense through specific crosses; we wanted a shepherd, and we strengthened his gregariousness and his resistance; we wanted a companion dog for small spaces, and we sacrificed some of those characteristics in favor of small size and greater psychic sensitivity…and so on a huge list of jobs or activities for which we decided to use the dog. Very good, then; Now is the time to be responsible with our "creations" and adequately meet his needs.
Suppose we pass by the store and fall in love with a puppy of any shepherd breed. We are not interested in any specific aptitude in him and his mere presence will satisfy our need for companionship. But…and what does he need from us?
-Company: you get home and, of course, your faithful and unconditional friend is there to welcome you, wagging his tail that looks like it's going to fall off and waiting for the least of your gestures to please you. What satisfaction, right? But… how long have you been away from home? Does your job allow you to share your life with him? Would you be willing to sacrifice leisure activities to be with him, or to change them for others in which you can enjoy each other? If the answer is negative... how about buying a fish tank instead?
-Exercise: very good. You have a flexible schedule, or even better, you work from home and you can be with your furry friend all day. Certainly, your sheepdog keeps you company – and you him, of course – even if he is asleep on the sofa like now, eight hours a day. Something in the picture doesn't add up, right? The dog needs to run, move, feel useful; you have to stimulate his body, and also his mind so that he can fulfill himself and be a Dog (thus, with capital letters). If not... how about buying yourself a plaster dog instead?
-Living space: phenomenal! You have plenty of time to share with the dog, and you have internalized that it rains, snows, or shines, you have to take it outside to exercise and let off steam. This allows you to dedicate some time exclusively to him, something that you cannot do at home since you and he shares 20 square meters with four cats, a ferret, and a parrot... The alarm sounds again: no matter how interspecifically sociable your dog is, you need your space, your toys, your place to be quiet. If not... maybe a colony of ants is better, right?
-Living space (2): excellent! You work from home, nobody takes away your two hours of daily walks with your dog (not counting playtime with him), and you live in a chalet with a garden as big as a football stadium. You have two dogs that get along great with each other, so go for the third one. Anyway, what can go wrong, right? Well, let's say if you have two dogs that get along, you have a well-balanced equation. And when you have a well-balanced equation, introducing another element into it has to be done very carefully, or else it can end in disaster. You have to examine the character of the dogs you have, their needs and qualities, and then make sure - as much as possible - that the ones the new member has will be compatible with them. For this, you must have certain knowledge and a good capacity for observation.
In the history that we have been writing together with the dogs for thousands of years, we have reserved for ourselves the role of the dominant, of being the Super Alphas. But that privilege also brings a great responsibility: we are in charge of providing well-being for those who blindly trust us. Well-being is made up of much more than the daily ration of feed and a roof under which to sleep.
The first step to do so is to understand that their needs are different from ours, but no less important for that.-
Martín R. Ojeda :aepe.net
In the United States, the breed gained wider recognition following a 1928 American Kennel Gazette article, "Meet the Labrador Retriever". Before this time, the AKC had only registered 23 Labradors in the country, in part because US and UK hunting styles had different requirements.
Labradors acquired popularity as hunting dogs during the 1920s and especially after World War II, as they gained recognition as combining some of the best traits of the two favorite United States breeds as both game finders and water dogs.
Outside North America and Western Europe, the Labrador arrived later. For example, the Russian Retriever Club traces the arrival of Labradors to the late 1960s, as household pets of diplomats and others in the foreign ministry.
The establishment of the breed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (ex-USSR) was initially hindered by the relatively small numbers of Labradors and great distances involved, leading to difficulty establishing breedings and bloodlines; at the start of the 1980s, home-born dogs were still regularly supplemented by further imports from overseas. Difficulties such as these initially led to Labradors being tacitly cross-bred to other types of retrievers. In the 1990s, improved access to overseas shows and bloodlines is said to have helped this situation become regularised.
The Labrador is an exceptionally popular dog. For example :
There is no global registry of Labradors, nor detailed information on the numbers of Labradors living in each country. The countries with the five largest numbers of Labrador registrations as of 2005 are 1: the United States 2: the United Kingdom and France (approximately equal), 4: Sweden, 5: Finland. Sweden and Finland have far lower populations than the other three countries, suggesting that these two countries have the highest proportion of labs per million people:
OFA statistics suggest that yellow and black labs are registered in very similar numbers (yellow slightly more than black); chocolate in lesser numbers.
Note: number of registrations is not necessarily the same as the number of living dogs at any given time.
As both the most popular breed by registered ownership and also the most popular breed for assistance dogs in several countries, there have been many notable and famous labradors since the breed was recognized.
A selection of a few of the most famous labradors within various categories includes:
EndalOn-Demandcashpoint, the world's most decorated dog, wearing his PDSA Gold Medal.; Assistance dogs
Endal is a service dog in England. Among other distinctions, "the most decorated dog in the world" (including "Dog of the Millennium" and the PDSA’s Gold Medal for Animal Gallantry and Devotion to Duty), the first dog to ride on the London Eye, and the first dog known to work a 'chip and pin' ATM card. By his death in March 2009 Endal and his owner/handler, Allen Parton had been filmed almost 350 times by crews from several countries, and a film of a year in Endal's life was in production.
Lucky and Flo, twin Black Labrador counterfeit detection dogs who became famous in 2007 for "sniffing out nearly 2 million pirated counterfeit DVDs" on a six-month secondment to Malaysia in 2007. Following the multi-million dollar, 6-arrest Malaysian detection, they became the first dogs to be awarded Malaysia's, "outstanding service award", and software pirates were stated to have put a £30,000 contract out for their lives.
Former President of the United States Bill Clinton's Labradors Buddy and Seamus.
Former Russian President, and current Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's Labrador 'Koni'.
Labradors have featured variously as pets and significant characters in sitcoms and other TV shows, as well as other portrayals in the media. Bouncer in Neighbours, and Luath in The Incredible Journey, are two TV examples.
Marley is an American Labrador portrayed in Marley & Me, a book by John Grogan in which Grogan recounts his life and times with Marley.
Since 1972, a yellow Labrador pup known as the Andrex Puppy has been an advertising symbol for Andrex (Cottonelle) toilet tissue.
Michigan State University has an ongoing tradition of Zeke the Wonder Dog. The original "Zeke" and "Zeke III" were yellow labs and "Zeke II" was a black lab.
Nigger, a black labrador, was the official mascot for the famous Dambusters Squadron and still currently is. Nigger was the dog that the squadron used to take onboard for missions.
Do you have a medium to large dog older than five years? Maybe you have a small dog over 7 years of age?
When medium to large dogs reach the age of 5, or small dogs hit the 7-year mark, they are considered to be in their ‘middle age’. This is the time that small aches and pains will start to appear. (If you can see the 50-year mark approaching, you know what I’m talking about!)
Medium to large dogs are more prone to arthritis than small dogs, but small dogs still have their share of aging issues.
There are several things that you can do to make your dog’s life a little easier. Let's examine two of the simpler ways to help your pet be comfortable and perhaps prolong his life.
First and foremost, do not leave your dog outside in the harsh winter months. The severe cold exacerbates any pain an animal may have and is especially bad for arthritis or hip dysplasia. If you refuse to have your dog in the house, fix him up with a heated doghouse. It doesn’t cost much and can be easily done. Look on the Internet for instructions.
Get your pet a good-quality bed. Your dog spends approximately 70% of his days asleep, and just like you, he needs a bed that won’t put pressure on his bones. The floor does not meet this qualification! Pillow dog beds are sold in so many varieties and styles now it is very easy to match your décor or your personality!
When looking at dog beds, select the heated beds. Some of the heated beds run on batteries and can be placed outside. They also sell orthopedic beds that you can look at and dog beds that are both heated and orthopedic.
TIP: If your dog appears to have problems at night getting his rear end to stand up, that means he is having pain in his hips. Give a medium to large dog 1 (one) buffered aspirin; give a small dog a baby aspirin (one), or one of the low dose aspirins. This will help relieve the pain for up to 12 hours.
No dog toy is indestructible, especially when locked in the jaws of a German Shepherd, but some have very good resistance. Shepherds are notorious chewers and an animal that destroys toys as you have never seen, however
You can find toys as tough as a stuffed crocodile to thwart your pet's destructive plans.
Chunky rubber toys can withstand the powerful jaws of a German Shepherd, even one whose sole aim is to break the toy into tiny pieces, but plain old rubber is only going to entertain your dog for a couple of days. You should choose toys that squeak, roll easily, or dispense treats. Some Shepherds enjoy a ribbed texture on rubber toys that feel good on their gums. Thin rubber rings or bones are not generally suitable for this breed as they break too easily.
Soft, luxurious toys are not usually suitable for German Shepherds, those that only have one or two layers of material will probably not last more than a few days, but stuffed toys that have been sewn several times with various types of materials can last almost a lifetime. They are tough enough to withstand direct gnawing, even from an adult Shepherd. If your shepherd isn't used to biting the throat of toys, lower-quality stuffed animals and even those designed for children can last him several months.
Although your dog will surely disagree, small leather bones should be out of his reach, even compressed rawhide ones, as they break too easily when bitten by German Shepherds. Strong, long, and durable bones like a femur can give your pet years of action without the danger of him breaking off small pieces that he can swallow. To keep your pup busy for a few hours, give him femur bones where you can slip some peanut butter or another type of food.
There are varieties of ropes, a single rope with both ends knotted, two ropes joined together by a bone, etc. Those that are knotted at the ends and in the middle are better and less likely to break. If you want to join in on the action, pick up a race-ready rope and be ready to pull on the other end.
Some German Shepherds have a delusion for gutting all the toys they have. That means a lot of stuffing will end up on the floor in your house and sometimes in your pet's stomach. Toys that are flat in appearance and contain no padding limit your dog's desire to break them because they don't contain any treasure inside. Lack of padding bores some dogs, but choosing toys that contain whistles solves that problem. Whistles are generally well attached and difficult to remove.
Putting a 3-inch toy in front of a German Shepherd puppy is fine, but a larger Shepherd can easily choke on a toy that size. Toys 6 inches or larger and round objects like tennis balls are generally safe for adult Shepherds, but you should always supervise your pet when he's spending time with his toy of choice. If you notice that the toy can enter too much in his mouth, you should remove it. Some Shepherds enjoy tilting their heads back and chewing on toys with their back teeth in this position; if your dog does this, discourage him by saying "NO" or naming him in a threatening way. If you notice that a toy is breaking or a bone has split, you should remove it immediately.
Veterinarians and companion animal nutritionists consider pet diets to be the foundation of good health: a healthy, balanced diet is the necessary prerequisite for a healthy and happy pet.
In recent years, rotating protein diets like the ones you can find in the Piensos Popas online store, which consist of regularly varying the protein base of the dog's food and exposing them to new proteins, have gained in popularity among pet owners.
This approach represents a significant change from the dominant feeding approaches until now, which have focused on the idea that dogs need total consistency in their diets, that is, they are fed one type of protein, one formula of food, twice a day, every day for his entire life.
Since then, this idea has been challenged by many pet health professionals, who believe that such a feeding program leads to gaps in nutrition and the development of allergies.
By varying the types of protein and food you feed your dog, you prevent him from getting bored of the same old food, day after day. This allows you to get to know your dog's tastes and is especially good for picky dogs.
No food source contains everything your pet needs in his diet. Each protein has a different amino acid composition, and different foods offer different vitamins, nutrients, fatty acids, and enzymes that are unique to their particular build.
Therefore, each type of food has its strengths and weaknesses, and the best way to ensure a complete and balanced diet is to offer a variety of foods and food sources that help create a dynamic and complete diet.
When dogs are fed the same food over a long period, with little variation, they can often develop intolerances to certain ingredients.
This manifests as allergies, sensitivities, and sometimes the pet simply refusing to eat. If new proteins are added and the variation of the diet is increased, the probability of developing intolerances decreases considerably.
Most dogs, unless they suffer from severe allergies or gastrointestinal problems, benefit greatly from a varied diet.
The first step is to choose a food that is complete and balanced and offers a variety of proteins that you can rotate through. Some dogs are more sensitive to changes than others and require slower transitions to new proteins, while others can adapt quickly and easily to changes.
A fun way to ensure a smooth and easy transition is to use the new food as "treats for a week," and then begin the process of mixing the new food with the old. This approach will help your dog's stomach adjust to the change and make him think that he is getting special treats in his regular meal.
A second way to add variety to your dog's diet is to incorporate unique and novel foods in the form of treats into his daily activities.
Just like us, everything we feed our dogs has an impact. From their main diet to the table scraps they inevitably receive in response to those sad, unhappy looks from under the kitchen table.
Treats are often thought of as a fun little cookie handed out for good behavior, when in fact they can be so much more.
Using new types of protein, like crickets and wakame, and adding superfoods, like turmeric, blueberries, and lingonberries, provide an easy way to add healthy depth and diversity to your dog's diet.
Remember that your dog's varied diet is very important to take care of its health and longevity because we all want to have it with us as long as possible.
Many dogs, including Labs such as this twelve-year-old, show distinct whitening of the coat as they grow older; especially around the muzzle.
Labrador pups should not be brought home before they are 7–10 weeks old. Their life expectancy is generally 12 to 13 years, and it is a healthy breed with relatively few major problems. Notable issues related to health and wellbeing include:
* Labradors are somewhat prone to hip and elbow dysplasia, especially the larger dogs, though not as much as some other breeds. Hip scores are recommended before breeding.
Labs also suffer from the risk of knee problems. A luxating patella is a common occurrence in the knee where the leg is often bow-shaped.
Eye problems are also possible in some Labs, particularly progressive retinal atrophy, cataracts, corneal dystrophy, and retinal dysplasia. Dogs that are intended to be bred should be examined by a veterinary ophthalmologist for an eye score.
Hereditary myopathy is a rare inherited disorder that causes a deficiency in type II muscle fiber.
There is a small incidence of other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and deafness in labs, either congenitally or later in life.
Labs are sometimes prone to ear infections because their floppy ears trap warm moist air. This is easy to control but needs regular checking to ensure that a problem is not building up unseen. A healthy Labrador ear should look clean and light pink (almost white) inside. Darker pink (or inflamed red), or brownish deposits, are a symptom of ear infection. The usual treatment is regular cleaning daily or twice daily (being careful not to force dirt into the sensitive inner ear) and sometimes medication (ear drops) for major cases. As a preventative measure, some owners clip the hair carefully around the ear and under the flap, to encourage better airflow. Labradors also get cases of allergic reactions to food or other environmental factors.
Labs can easily become overweight, due to their enjoyment of treats, hearty appetites, and endearing behavior towards people. Lack of activity is also a contributing factor. A healthy Labrador should keep a very slight hourglass waist and be fit and light, rather than fat or heavy-set.
Excessive weight on dogs is strongly implicated as a risk factor in the later development of hip dysplasia or other joint problems and diabetes, and also can contribute to general reduced health when older. Osteoarthritis is commonplace in older, especially overweight, Labs. A 14-year study covering 48 dogs by food manufacturer Purina showed that labs fed to maintain a lean body shape outlived those fed freely, by around two years, emphasizing the importance of not over-feeding.
I will present below the baselines that motivate the majority of dog aggressions that, due to their intensity, produce disproportionate damage and cause useless normative or legislative effects, derived from the confusion that the opinions expressed in the media by opinion express in this regard. public.
If this confusion is understandable to a certain extent, it is inexcusable and sometimes embarrassing, as expressed by the majority of canine professionals who are publicly invited to express themselves about dog aggression.
Breeders, dealers, and even some veterinarians can be understood to make mistakes. But that a trainer or as some now call themselves, "canine educators or behaviorists" allow themselves the license to say the nonsense that is heard about it, not only provokes the embarrassment of others but also sets the tone of what we have in the profession.
I will expose the three ideas that support the most heard errors about dog aggression:
For a dog to be used in fights it cannot be aggressive. In other words, aggressiveness is an obstacle to the fight. The fighting dog does it by mechanisms of seizure, not a defense.
The basis of aggressiveness in dogs is fear and this triggers inhibitions* in the individual who manifests it. Inhibitions that must not exist for a dog to be "good" at fighting.
Individuals who are fearful or show symptoms of fear (basis of aggressiveness) are discarded by the tormentors who engage in dogfighting. But this does not mean that they are sacrificed, but that they are sold or given away, joining the list of companion puppies.
When aggressiveness is triggered in these dogs, due to the lack of an adequate level of inhibitions, a massive succession of stimuli is produced that leads to an orgy of aggressive manifestations generally specified in bites of the power that a dog specialized in it can develop.
It is known that in the behavior of the canid we can find brakes or limitations to certain patterns of said behavior. These brakes can be specifically inherited or learned.
This is the case in which any healthy canine establishes a limit in the aggression towards another individual of the opposite sex or towards a puppy.
In certain breeds such as the pit bull, the selection of the breeder for the sake of the fight entails rewarding individuals who lack inhibitions or brakes at the time of the fight.
During a fight between these dogs, if the opponent is in a submissive position or complains, which in most canids would mean a brake on aggression, it does not cause any inhibition in the aggressor.
We cannot forget that defense in canids never leads to the direct death of the aggressor. It is only intended to repel the attack.
Training dogs for defense does not increase their aggressiveness but channels it. This, which is known by anyone who has "observed" defense work, is unknown by others who in their ignorance presuppose the opposite.
Similarly, when the child goes to martial arts, he does not become aggressive but rather channels his impulsiveness in an orderly way.
If an irresponsible owner commissions a defense job to an amateur or asks colleagues to "touch" the dog, he may at most get a pissed-off dog tending to attack anyone who bothers him.
That has nothing to do with the training of a security or sports dog.
The main cause of aggression in the family, "to the owner" is due to dominance by competition. This is most cases extends to strangers.
Such aggressive reactions are fueled by a dog of pronounced dominant rank and love, lots of love.
The hierarchical nature of dogs drives them to a greater or lesser degree to position themselves or rank. The main resource that dogs have for this imperative task is force.
Therefore, if we have an individual of pronounced dominance, who, in addition to taking care of him with the greatest attention, we show ourselves devoted to his continuous adoration and never use force with him, we will have opted to turn him into a tyrant who probably from the age of three years decided to "put us in our place".
If this reaction occurs in an insecure fighting dog, we can now understand that without the proper natural checks (inhibitions), aggression can be dramatic.
In my opinion, legislative actions have to aim at the prohibition and elimination of breeds that continuously engage in aggressive actions of this nature. With the morality of our society and the criminal use that is mostly given to some of these breeds, there is no place for these animals.
A few years ago, dog aggression outside of common sense - outside its territory, against children, the elderly, etc. - led to the animal being immediately euthanized. And not because it was "good or bad" but, expressed in ethological terms, they were not successful behaviors.
In the humanization to which we subject dogs, we apply considerations that justify said aggressions and as a general solution, the problem is endorsed by giving away the problematic dog.
Some breeders will have to realize that against their business or their irresponsibility there are factors that prevent the popularization of some breeds.
And if they try, in the case of the Rotweiller, to soften the character to enable a massive sale, the result can be a huge number of shy copies that will lose this shyness before a child or a weak old man and Oh surprise! I never would have guessed! As affectionate as the puppy is, the boy must have done something to him when he killed him!
No training professional disputes the uselessness of these breeds for defense tasks at any level other than deterrence. And many, for this you do not have to be a professional at all, we think that the repertoire of breeds or their mixtures is so wide as to be able to choose another type of dog as a companion, come on, a dog.
Jesús Guzmán Ortega
Source: AEPE http://aepe.net/ - Association for the Study of the Dog and its Environment
Labradors are relatively large, with males typically weighing 30 - 36 kgs and females 25 - 32 kgs. Labs weighing close to or over 100 lbs are considered obese or having a major fault under American Kennel Club standards, although some labs weigh significantly more. The majority of the characteristics of this breed, except colour, are the result of breeding to produce a working retriever.
As with some other breeds, the English (typically "show" or "bench") and the American (typically "working" or "field") lines differ, although both lines are bred in both countries. In general, however, in the United Kingdom, Labs tend to be bred as medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and a slightly calmer nature than their American counterparts, which are often bred as taller, lighter-built dogs.
These two types are informal and not codified or standardised; no distinction is made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but the two types come from different breeding lines. Australian stock also exists; though not seen in the west, they are common in Asia.
The breed tends to shed hair twice annually, or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates. Some labs shed a lot; however, individual labs vary. Labrador hair is usually fairly short and straight, and the tail quite broad and strong. The otter-like tail and webbed toes of the Labrador Retriever make them excellent swimmers. Their interwoven coat is also relatively waterproof, providing more assistance for swimming. Along with a few other breeds of dogs, labs are known for stretching out their hind legs straight when lying down.
Like any animal, there is a great deal of variety among Labs. The following characteristics are typical of the conformation show bred (bench-bred) lines of this breed in the United States and are based on the AKC standard. Significant differences between US and UK standards are noted.
Size: Labs are a medium-large but compact breed. They should have an appearance of proportionality. They should be as long from the withers to the base of the tail as they are from the floor to the withers. Males should stand tall at the withers and weigh 65 - 80 lbs. Females should stand and weigh 55 - 70 lbs. By comparison under UK Kennel Club standards, height should be for males, and for females.
Coat: The Lab's coat should be short and dense, but not wiry. The coat is described as 'water-resistant' or more accurately 'water-repellent' so that the dog does not get cold when taken to the water in the winter. That means that the dog naturally has a slightly dry, oily coat. Acceptable colours are black, yellow(ranging from ivory or creme to fox-red), and chocolate.
Head: The head should be broad with a pronounced and slightly pronounced brow. The eyes should be kind and expressive. Appropriate eye colours are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes should be black. The ears should hang close to the head and are set slightly above the eyes.
Jaws: The jaws should be strong and powerful. The muzzle should be of medium length, and should not be too tapered. The jaws should hang slightly and curve gracefully back.
Body: The body should be strong and muscular with a level topline.
The tail and coat are designated "distinctive [or distinguishing] features" of the Labrador by both the Kennel Club and AKC. The AKC adds that "true Labrador Retriever temperament is as much a hallmark of the breed as the 'otter' tail."
There are three recognised colours for Labs: black (a solid black colour), yellow (anything from light cream to gold to "fox-red"), and chocolate (medium to dark brown). There are no such things as silver or golden Labradors, a common mistake for the Yellow variant. There is also a black-and-tan coat type, but this coat colour is the least popular as it renders the Labrador un-showable except in the UK.
Puppies of all colours can potentially occur in the same litter. Colour is determined primarily by two genes. The first gene (the B locus) determines the density of the coat's pigment granules: dense granules result in a black coat, sparse ones give a chocolate coat. The second (E) locus determines whether the pigment is produced at all.
A dog with the recessive e allele will produce little pigment and will be yellow regardless of its genotype at the B locus. Variations in numerous other genes control the subtler details of the coat's colouration, which in yellow Labs varies from white to light gold to a fox red. Chocolate and black Labs' noses will match the coat colour.
Because Labrador colouration is controlled by multiple genes, it is possible for recessive genes to emerge some generations later and also there can sometimes be unexpected pigmentation effects on different parts of the body. Pigmentation effects appear in regard to yellow Labradors, and sometimes chocolate, and hence the majority of this section covers pigmentation within the yellow Labrador.
The most common places where pigmentation is visible are the nose, lips, gums, feet, tail, and the rims of the eyes, which may be black, brown, light yellow-brown ("liver", caused by having two genes for chocolate), or several other colours. A Labrador can carry genes for a different colour, for example, a black Labrador can carry recessive chocolate and yellow genes, and a yellow Labrador can carry recessive genes for the other two colours.
DNA testing can reveal some aspects of these. Less common pigmentations (other than pink) are a fault, not a disqualification, and hence such dogs are still permitted to be shown. The intensity of black pigment on yellow Labs is controlled by a separate gene independent of the fur colouring.
Yellow Labradors usually have black noses, which may gradually turn pink with age (called "snow nose" or "winter nose"). This is due to a reduction in the enzyme tyrosinase which indirectly controls the production of melanin, a dark colouring. Tyrosinase is temperature dependent—hence light colouration can be seasonal, due to cold weather—and is less produced with increasing age two years old onwards. As a result, the nose colour of most yellow Labs becomes a somewhat pink shade as they grow older.
A seven-week-old Dudley Labrador Retriever. The nose and lips are pink or flesh-coloured, the defining aspect of Dudley pigmentation, as compared to the more standard brown or black. A colouration is known as "Dudley" is also possible. Dudleys are variously defined as yellow Labs which have no pigmented (pink) noses (LRC), yellow with liver/chocolate pigmentation (AKC), or "flesh coloured" in addition to having the same colour around the rims of the eye, rather than having black or dark brown pigmentation.
A yellow Labrador with brown or chocolate pigmentation, for example, a brown or chocolate nose, is not necessarily a Dudley, though according to the AKC's current standard it would be if it has chocolate rims around the eyes (or more accurately of the genotype eebb). Breed standards for Labradors consider a true Dudley to be a disqualifying feature in a conformation show Lab, such as one with a thoroughly pink nose or one lacking in any pigment along with flesh-coloured rims around the eyes. True Dudleys are extremely rare.
Breeding in order to correct pigmentation often lacks dependability. Because colour is determined by many genes, some of which are recessive, crossbreeding a pigmentation non-standard yellow Labrador to a black Labrador may not correct the matter or prevent future generations from carrying the same recessive genes. For similar reasons, crossbreeding chocolate to yellow labs is also often avoided.
There are significant differences between field and trial-bred (sometimes referred to as "American") and show-bred (or "English") lines of Labradors, arising as a result of specialised breeding. Dogs bred for hunting and field-trial work are selected first for working ability, whereas dogs bred to compete in conformation shows are selected for their conformation to the standards and characteristics sought by judges in the show ring.
While individual dogs may vary, in general, show-bred Labradors are heavier built, slightly shorter-bodied, and have a thicker coat and tail. Field Labradors are generally longer-legged, lighter, and lither in build. In the head, show Labradors tend to have broader heads, better-defined stops, and more powerful necks, while field Labradors have lighter and slightly narrower heads with longer muzzles.
Field-bred Labradors are commonly higher energy and more high-strung compared to the Labrador bred for conformation showing, and as a consequence may be more suited to working relationships than being a "family pet". Some breeders, especially those specialising in the field type, feel that breed shows do not adequately recognise their type of dog, leading to occasional debate regarding officially splitting the breed into subtypes.
In the United States, the AKC and the Labrador's breed club have set the breed standard to accommodate the field-bred Labrador somewhat. For instance, the AKC withers-height standards allow conformation dogs to be slightly taller than the equivalent British standard. However, dual champions, or dogs that excel in both the field and the show ring, are becoming more unusual.
These chocolate Labradors from field-bred stock are typically lighter in build and have a shorter coat than conformation show Labrador.
Terms such as "golden", "silver", "blue", "white", "red" or "grey" as variants are not recognised. The term "Golden Labrador" has been used both as an incorrect term for yellow labradors of a golden shade and also for any Labrador-Golden Retriever crossbreed of any colour, including black. White is a light shade of yellow (officially referred to as 'light cream' or 'pale yellow' in the standard), and silver is not recognised. Claims that some "rare" variants exist or have been verified by DNA testing, or the like, are widely considered to be a 'scam'.
The attitude that every dog lover must maintain when he decides to be accompanied part of his life by "man's best friend", raises some questions that are necessary and among which, we are going to answer those that are essential to establish an adequate and long coexistence with our friend.
The size of the dog that we select should be governed by the following criteria:
Environment.- In an apartment in the big city, the size will be noticed in the living space that the dog permanently occupies, that is, both at home, in the elevator, on the sidewalks, or in means of transport. Even the size of the stool is conditioned by its corpulence.
Dedication.- Although generally, a small-sized dog is notably more active than a large-sized dog, this same condition is what forces the owner of a large-sized dog to take long walks that keep their dog in perfect physical condition. and psychic.
"A correct relationship of the dog with the environment from which it perceives smells, noises and other sensations, together with the proper physical expansion, suppose an inexhaustible source of psychic balance in the dog"
Regarding the guide.- The ideal weight of the dog should correspond to half the weight of the person who usually handles it. We should apply this rule to the dogs that we will guide on the leash, not logically so in those that will be on a farm, free and which we will occasionally have to retain.
Long hair.- Ideal for dogs that will spend most of their time outdoors. This type of hair protects them from both cold and heat. For inclement, humid, cold, or rainy places they must have an undercoat.
The inner hair or undercoat ensures that moisture does not come into contact with the dog's skin. In this way, although the outer hair is wet, the dog is "dry". Thus, cooling and even freezing are avoided.
Some breed clubs, such as the German Shepherd Club, have established in the breed standard that individuals with long hair (prone to the absence of undercoat) may not appear in the studbook (they will not obtain the documentation or pedigree). )
Long hair needs to be brushed frequently and during shedding periods, daily.
An added inconvenience, and not without importance, is the notable presence of this type of hair at the time of shedding, spreading everywhere, house, car, garden, and other spaces traveled by the dog. It is not that this does not happen with short hair, but rather that it is more noticeable with long hair.
Short hair.- It is suitable for dogs that will live indoors and will not be exposed more than reasonably to inclement weather. Entering the house or the car with a short-haired dog after a walk in the rain has nothing to do with the consequences of doing so with a long-haired dog.
On the other hand, care is significantly reduced and therefore the time we have to dedicate to this task.
What relationship will you have with the group?
The time that we can dedicate to our friends should count at the moment of choosing. Each individual has different needs but we will dare to take the reference of the race as a guide.
Herding and hunting breeds.- Very adaptable to any environmental situation and highly gregarious, therefore individuals very much in need of integration into the group (family or other dogs). Ideal for owners who can spend a lot of time with their dogs.
Defense breeds.- We will refer to those such as Boxer, Dobermann, German Shepherd, Belgian Shepherd, or others with similar characteristics that have been selected for their qualities as companions and protectors of the guide. We exclude guard dogs of the Molossian type, which in many cases show little mental activity.
The individuals of these races are usually very gregarious, but their high psychic activity and protection instinct allows them to spend long periods outside observing what is happening around them. However, they need to walk and play with their master whenever the opportunity arises. Strongly discouraged as kennel or kennel dogs.
Dogs with a high level of mental activity, such as the breeds mentioned, are sensitive to confinement in small kennels, without observing a lively environment or without expectations of activity with their owner or group. Anomalous, stereotyped, or neurotic behaviors are produced.
Guard Breeds.- We consider in this section the individuals of the breeds whose selection is directed to the surveillance of enclosures or goods. Molossians, molossoids, and those that due to their qualities of dissuasive appearance, size or capacity has been selected for these purposes. We will include in this section, Rottweiler, Mastiffs, and Dogos.
With few exceptions, they are usually dogs with little mental activity. This added to their independence from the group makes them adapt to live in relative solitude.
The "chain" characteristic is added to certain breeds, in some cases, such as the Neapolitan mastiff, having a body adapted to this circumstance.
Do we need any canine utility?
Certainly, in the case of needing that the dog we are looking for can perform some task, we will take into account that he is as adapted as possible to the purpose we are looking for.
We ignore the usefulness of the company, because even being very important, the dog, with rare exceptions, is intrinsically gregarious and therefore needs to be integrated into a group.
Guard or defense utility.- We will choose individuals from breeding lines selected for this purpose. So that the breeder only has as a criterion added to that of good health that of choosing as breeders the individuals best adapted to utility.
The golden rule in raising utility dogs is to prioritize without compromise and in the following order:
(psychic qualities for utility)
If we alter this order, we increase the obstacles to achieving the goal, being possible invalidity for it, and even unwanted changes in behavior.
Therapeutic Usefulness.- Sometimes, it is necessary for a dog to become the trigger for a change of attitude in a person or group of people.
It is in the elderly, children with language or communication problems, mental or physical limitations, terminally ill, prisoners, people who live in isolation, etc. where the dog has demonstrated the therapeutic validity of it.
The acquisition of a therapy dog must be backed by a balanced and non-dominant behavior towards humans. In preference to dogs with a high playful instinct. Of course, it is advisable to seek advice from professionals in the health and canine field. There are associations in several countries of the world, which can provide valuable collaboration in certain therapeutic cases.
Will you cohabit with children?
Children represent for a mentally healthy dog the equivalent of a puppy. For this comparison, the puppy is an element with certain privileges, of which we list the most important below.
Any annoying activity of the puppy towards the adult is allowed. At most, it can be corrected by this but without causing physical damage.
Feeding by regurgitation is a reflex action that the puppy awakens in the adult by licking the corner of the mouth.
The adult must respect the safety distance while the puppy feeds.
These are some of the puppy's privileges compared to other adults. We want to point them out as an example in establishing a reflection on the behavior of some adult dogs towards children.
The adult dog that does not tolerate children in general or even attacks them presents such dysfunction that the owner should consider euthanizing the animal.
Although this is terrible, we cannot give any chance for an accident to occur, which in some cases can mean the death of the child.
It has nothing to do with aggression against children, that the dog is aggressive in other aspects. For example, police or security dogs are selected from individuals who are tolerant of children. This is an indication of stability and security in character. Almost always, the dog that bites a child is not capable of doing it to an adult who confronts him.
Therefore, when the dog lives with children, we will try to select it among individuals that are tolerant of puppies or that are not skittish with humans.
The safer and more stable the character of the dog, the more guarantees of success in coexistence with children.
Will he live with other dogs?
If the dog that we are going to acquire has to live with other dogs, we will take into account three basic rules.
- The races that have a high gregarious and hierarchical instinct are the ideal ones.
- If possible, we will make individuals of different sexes coexist, but in case of having established a group of elements of the same sex, we will integrate another similar one. Doing it with an element of the opposite sex would mean likely disputes.
- Fighting, prey, and molossoid breeds usually have few instinctive inhibitions when fighting with other individuals of the same sex, so it is easy for fights to be dramatic.
Inhibitions are the brakes that instinct or learning puts on certain behaviors. Instinctive inhibitions are a much stronger brake than learned ones. For example, the male does not bite the female due to instinctive inhibition.
Get a puppy or an adult?
The majority option of those who decide to acquire a dog is to get a puppy and is usually motivated by the belief that the adult dog is more difficult to understand and adapt to its new environment.
Acquiring a puppy has the advantage of participating in the development of our friend and enjoying periods of his life that are a delight. On the contrary, there are risks in terms of psychic and physical development that will have to wait until we know how it ends.
But since it is easier to handle a puppy, choosing a young or adult dog does not have to be a problem. The results of his evolution are insight.
The adult dog needs about a week to adapt to his new environment. His hierarchical and gregarious spirit will make him quickly find his leader and the rest of the group in his case.
Conveniently, we do not rule out the option of the adult dog. Some people have no choice but to get rid of their dog and this may be the one we need. Fixed a redundancy.
If we are already clear about the use that we are going to give our animal, let's see in general what differentiates the two sexes of the species.
Males are more independent, more stubborn in education, and, due to the competitive function, more aggressive than females. Let us think that the hormone of masculinity is, at the same time, that of aggressiveness. This character is fully justified and when it comes to reduction by clinical means, the results obtained, apart from being unnatural, have never been reliable.
On the other hand, males are more suitable for defense due to the sexual dimorphism of the species. We mean that they are, almost always, larger and stronger than the female and, due to secondary sexual characteristics, superior in deterrent effect.
Therefore, we discourage the acquisition of a male German Shepherd to a woman of little character. Being a woman implies a lower level of testosterone in the blood (male hormone) and having little character presupposes a lack of leadership in future relationships with her dominant macho who admires and fears Testosterone while demanding an iron fist in a glove. silk.
Our dogs are not sexist or feminist and only understand this human concept, what their biology tells them is appropriate.
Females are more prone to what has been called psychological pregnancy, which is nothing more than maternal obsessions in unmarried specimens. Also, being more dependent, they suffer more from separation anxiety (which we will see in another chapter). They usually cause hygiene problems when the estrous cycle or period comes and, finally, they are more destructive.
On the contrary, they take better care of human cubs than males, are less independent and more gregarious than males, tend to run away less, and are apt to nest with almost all owners.
The unavoidable question is why all these differences? There are many more that we will be unraveling throughout the book and in the behavior chapters. For this, we must be clear about a series of concepts that we will gradually see later.
In a shop?
In a pet store, you can find dogs available on site or they can manage the location of the same.
In case of choosing this path, we must demand that the dog be checked by a veterinarian who certifies its health status.
We will also request a purchase contract with the guarantees announced by the seller, which will be accompanied by the corresponding legal invoice.
If it is a dog with the right to pedigree and if it is not yet available, this right must be stated in the contract, since the cost of the animal will be higher.
The pedigree is the guarantee of the origin of the dog. Document issued by an association entrusted by the Ministry of Agriculture with the maintenance of this registry. The data of the breeder, those of the birth of the individual's litter, those of his ancestors, and those of the owner are recorded.
The breeder notifies the birth of a litter and requests the corresponding receipt for each puppy from the canine association. When he sells a puppy, he gives it to the new owner, signing the transfer on the back of the receipt. The new owner can then request the pedigree from the aforementioned association, upon payment of a not insignificant economic amount.
We must know that we will generally find puppies from litters owned by individuals or from breeders who send the least attractive elements of the litters to the store.
To a specialized breeder?
If we have opted for a certain breed, another path to follow is to visit a specialized dog breeder. We will require the purchase contract and the purchase invoice in the case of a professional.
We must have references. If it is not possible to obtain them, we must be interested in the health and character of the dogs. In the case of utility breeds, their breeding lines should be geared towards some practical task or dog sport.
Let's be wary of breeders who are too concerned about the aesthetics of the dog and the very successful competitors in breeding shows. These will only have priority for beauty, which makes it easier for them to have their kennels full of elements with physical problems and significantly mentally handicapped.
If we are looking for a herding dog, let's buy it from a shepherd if possible. The major litter from any of his litters is infinitely higher quality than that from a commercial breeder.
In the same way, if we choose a hunting dog, let's look for a hunter who breeds with his dogs.
Both the security guard, the shepherd, or the hunter, if they raise dogs for their work, are the most specialized.
In an abandoned dog shelter?
There are numerous dogs abandoned by their owners and together with those that get lost they end up collected in municipal kennels or shelters for abandoned dogs.
Adopting one of these dogs can be the solution to the search, especially if what we want is to find a companion and we do not have pretensions of any other use.
It will be necessary to carefully observe the chosen dog because sometimes problem dogs are abandoned by their owners. To get to know him better, it is convenient to ask the direct caregiver.
Jesus Guzman Ortega
Source: AEPE - aepe.net Association for the Study of the Dog and its Environment
Cutting nails is part of the basic care of dogs. Unfortunately, many four-legged friends don't like tweezers anywhere near their paws. A dilemma for dog owners who do not want to cause their pet stress. Due to his nervousness that the dog might recoil or bite as he cuts his claws, he also increases the stress on the four-legged friend.
Here you can read about why declawing needs to be regular, when is the right time, and how to do it without whining.
Claws grow throughout life and can cause problems if they are too long
Dog claws are made of horns, just like human fingernails. They grow throughout life. When romping, playing, and running, dogs' claws naturally wear down a bit. But in many dogs, the claws grow faster and become too long.
Dogs that reside in rural areas with soft surfaces such as fields, meadows, and forests and city dogs that only know short walks in everyday life or less active dog breeds such as Pugs, Maltese, or Pekingese are particularly affected by claws. too long. If the claws become too long, the following problems arise:
Claw Injury: If the claws become too long, they interfere with the dog's running, playing, and romping. The too-long claw can break, tear or twist. A broken claw is very sharp and can hurt your head or neck if you scratch it. A crooked claw can get caught and rip off completely. The fact that there is a claw injury can usually be seen in the dog's behavior: the four-legged friend limps, does not want to step on his paw, or licks it intensely.
Ingrown Toenail – Excessively long claws can grow on the fingertip or adjacent toe. The wound is very painful and easily inflamed.
Altered gait pattern and damage to posture and joints: Dogs with claws that are too long can no longer walk comfortably. To escape the pressure and pain, try to relieve the affected paw. This changes your natural gait pattern and the joints are stressed on one side. Lifetime damage can occur.
Dog claws that are too long can be recognized by the clicking sound on hard floor coverings such as tiles and parquet. Leg tilt or lameness (stiff, limp gait without rolling legs) are also clear indicators that the dog has claws that are too long and suffers from length.
If you want to check if the claws are too long, you can check if they touch the ground when the dog is upright. If they touch the ground, you have to cut off the claws.
By the way, it is not enough for the dog to bite its claws. It is not a substitute for nail trimming. There are two reasons for this: chewing with your teeth can lead to sharp edges, ragged ends, and injuries. Also, blood vessels and nerves grow deeper and deeper into the claw if the claws are not trimmed regularly. Over time, this makes it increasingly difficult to cut the claws short enough without damaging blood vessels and nerves.
How often dogs need to be declawed varies. The claws of younger dogs grow faster than those of older four-legged friends.
If you have a lazy dog, you can trim the claws yourself. The dog should lie quietly on its side. Strong nail clippers, nail trimmers, electronic nail sharpeners, and nail files for filing sharp edges are available from specialty stores for different sizes of dogs.
It is important not to shorten the claw too much, because part of it is supplied with blood.
To avoid injury when cutting the claws, the pliers should not get too close to the "living" part of the claw.
It is recommended to shorten the claw in several small cuts.
With light-colored claws, the red line or pink-red area (perfused with blood) is quite easy to recognize.
May be more difficult with dark claws. A headlamp or flashlight is always helpful.
You should also have a pair of blunt-tipped scissors handy so you can quickly trim any pesky hairs between the pads.
In addition to the five claws on the front feet and the four claws on the hind feet, some dog breeds also have a so-called wolf's claw (dewclaw). It sits slightly raised on its hind legs and never touches the ground. Since it can grow, the wolf's claw must also be trimmed.
If the dog is reluctant to have his paws touched, he has black claws, or if the dog's owner prefers to leave the task
In the hands of professionals, the cutting of the claws can be done in the veterinary clinic or the canine hairdresser.
A few tips will help make trimming your dog's nails a routine that he accepts without problems.
Tip: regular paw check. It is helpful to accustom puppies to extensive handling and observation of their paws and claws from an early age. Animal experts recommend checking the paws at least once a month for the rest of its life. Problems with the claws and toes are also quickly noticeable.
Tip: get used to the claw pliers. Whether it's electronic claw sharpeners or manual nail clippers, the tool of choice should be no stranger to the dog. It is better if the dog sees the tool nearby in everyday life and when he plays. In this way, the animal reacts more calmly when cutting its claws.
The dog reacts to the behavior of the master and the master. If they are calm and relaxed, the dog can relax too. Hugs before and during the procedure give the four-legged friend a sense of security that everything is in order. A reward after declawing makes the dog quickly forget about declawing.
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We could say that Chihuahuas are small dogs that have been among the most popular breeds for the longest time. Although they have been labeled as lapdogs, the truth is that they are very active and playful dogs.
The Chihuahua receives its name from the Mexican state from which it has become known worldwide. Questionable legends circulate about him that relate him to the Aztec civilizations. They speak of chihuahuas with bluish coats that are considered sacred, while those with reddish coats are sacrificed on the funeral pyres of these towns.
In any case, the origins of the Chihuahua are not entirely clear. For some experts, this breed arrived in America with the Spanish expeditions of the 16th century. Others believe, however, that it was the Chinese navigators who moved it before the Europeans. Of course, it was always raised as a companion dog.
The Chihuahua has a rounded head with long, erect ears tilted outwards. The eyes are prominent and large and the mouth is small. The neck is robust and the body is compact and elongated, while the extremities are thin. The feet, small, have curved nails.
As for the coat, there is a short-haired variety and another, less frequent, long-haired variety. In the latter, the ears will have a good tuft of hair, as will the tail and the neck and chest area. Coat color can vary between a range of browns.
The Chihuahua is a dog with a lively, active, and always alert character, which can be problematic if it manifests itself with excessive barking. This personality results in a good watchman, although for most keepers this breed is only for company. This belief leads them to neglect the section corresponding to education.
In addition, Chihuahuas are also nervous. Sometimes we can see them tremble due to the excitement they feel. On other occasions, they will do so as a result of the temperature, since, in general, they are very cold and prefer sunny climates.
Due to their appearance and their small size, it is lost sight of the fact that they are still dogs and, as such, they have the same needs as if they were mastiffs. The absence of basic rules of education can result in barking and even biting aggressive dogs.
It is not, in any case, recommended that they be kept outside. On the contrary, they can adapt perfectly to life in the city. In times of intense cold, they may need to wear a coat during their walks to protect themselves from inclement weather. They are fun and persevering, as well as good company.
It does not need to do intense exercise but it does need moderate exercise, so we cannot do it without walking it several times a day. Caregivers must take into account this need and basic education for a happy coexistence in which the dog can channel his active character without it being a problem.
Short-haired Chihuahuas do not require excessive care for their coat. The long-haired variety does need regular brushing. In addition, we must pay special attention to his mouth and we should get him used to clean his teeth regularly.
Depending on the life stage you are in, we can use different ranges. Although all of them should be focused on small dogs since a large croquette mold could cause choking.
From weaning until approximately a year and a half of life, we can feed our Chihuahua puppy with Puppy Gourmet. In its adulthood, we can move on to Small Gourmet, specifically formulated for small breed dogs.
And in his old age, or if he becomes overweight, we can move on to SENIOR, a product with the size of a croquette somewhat smaller than usual and also moderate in calories to avoid being overweight.
The real name of the chihuahua is chihuahueño. Worldwide it is known by the chihuahua because it is the one that the Americans gave it, who were the ones who exported it from the Mexican state of the same name.
Another curiosity concerns his health and it is about the dislocation of the patella, that is, that this one comes out of its place. It can happen when they jump from a height, even a small one, or simply when running or playing. We will notice that the affected leg moves strangely or limps. The normal thing is that it returns to its site shortly spontaneously.
Chihuahuas are more at risk than other breeds for epilepsy. This brain disorder is characterized by recurrent seizures that may be due to different causes. In this case, it would be a congenital disease. He needs veterinary control and the prognosis is reserved.
Hydrocephalus is another disease that can affect Chihuahuas and consists of a buildup of fluid in the brain. Sometimes it is possible to notice the enlarged skull, others neurological symptoms such as seizures or changes in behavior will appear. It requires urgent veterinary treatment.
The mouth is another of their weak points and it is not uncommon for them to suffer from problems such as gingivitis due to tartar or periodontitis, which end up leading to the loss of teeth. That is why it is important to take care of your mouth and have a proper diet that reduces the deposit of tartar. The vet can also clean his teeth with an ultrasound regularly.
His cheerful nature and his devotion to humans make the German Spitz a good choice for a domestic companion. It is a dog with an alert temperament and a good guardian. It is not uncommon for it to be confused with other varieties, such as the Pomeranian or the Keeshond, as it has a common lineage. Keep reading to know everything about this dog breed.
Many claims that the German Spitz is one of the oldest dog breeds in Central Europe. Among its ancestors are the Torfhunde or the Spitz of the Lakes. Their main tasks were to accompany the sailors on their voyages and protect the farms. It was also common to see them standing guard over the hills, alerting visitors or intruders with a loud bark.
From the 17th century, they became dogs highly valued by German and English aristocrats. King George of England was an enthusiast of the breed and took in several specimens during his reign. Queen Victoria also held them in high esteem. With the arrival of World War I and II, their number was declining in Germany. To give them a new impetus, they were crossed with Keeshond specimens, a Dutch breed with similar genetic characteristics.
These dogs are compact, with a corpulent appearance due to their abundant fur. They have a slightly curved back and a short, straight back. The group is strong and broad, with a broad, well-developed chest and forechest. The belly is slightly tucked up.
The legs are thick and strong, straight and parallel. They have black, tight, and round feet, known as "cat feet". The tail is set high and is usually carried high, rolled over the back.
German Spitz has a wedge-shaped head, which when viewed from the front resembles that of a fox. The nose is rounded, small and black. The eyes are medium, almond-shaped, and dark in color. Their small ears have a triangular shape.
The coat is double-layered, with a short, soft, and thick inner fleece; the outer coat is long and straight. Hair should not be wavy, curly, or parted in the middle. Its abundant necklace stands out on the neck and in the shoulder area. The head, ears, and feet have shorter, velvety-textured hair.
There is a wide range of colors for the German Spitz, such as black, black and tan, white, red, brown, orange, or cream. The gray tone – wolf presents very particular characteristics, with a grayish gradient throughout the body, darker snout and ears, and black “glasses” around the eyes.
The specimens of this breed are energetic and love to please their owners. They are constantly seeking to be the center of attention, through horseplay or barking. Although they tolerate small children, they prefer to share their time with adults and older children.
With strangers, they will behave distantly. They find it difficult to gain confidence and, most likely, they try to control the situation all the time. Therefore, they are good as watchdogs and alert dogs. Socialization is key so that they do not become too cantankerous.
You should know, on the other hand, that they bark a lot and very sharply. This can become an annoying habit for friends and strangers if you don't control it from the beginning. Due to their need to please, they are easy dogs to train. They can be stubborn at times, so you need to be firm and not lose your patience.
Spitzes get along well with other dogs and pets, even small ones. Despite their marked instinct to chase, they can live with cats and rabbits if they have been raised together.
If you live in an apartment, don't worry. A German Spitz can adapt well to small spaces, as long as its exercise needs are met. However, if you live in an apartment, make sure that it is well trained so that it does not bark excessively and annoy your neighbors.
The ideal space to live with one of these dogs is a house with a garden. Chasing balls or running free are their favorite games. They need – at least – an hour of daily activity, which you can divide into two 30-minute walks or fun sessions at home.
During these outings, try to always keep them on a leash, as they are very curious and tend to get into places they shouldn't. In dog parks, you have to watch out so they don't slip through the fences.
Although they adapt well to all types of climates, they prefer lower temperatures. They shed their hair twice a year, usually in spring and autumn, so during these times, you should brush them often to get rid of the loose hair that gets tangled up in their lush coat.
By the way! It is not recommended to cut his fur too short, as it will weaken. Also, you should not bathe them too often. Its coat is repellent and the mud tends to come off easily with a light brushing when it dries.
Dogs with the German Spitz are especially sensitive to eye diseases, such as retinal dysplasia or progressive retinal atrophy. Both conditions are degenerative and, in some cases, can lead to total blindness.
Another breed-related ailment is patellar luxation, a progressive problem in the knee area; They also have a certain tendency to suffer from epileptic seizures.
Also, sometimes they can suffer a tracheal collapse, due to a deformation of the trachea that prevents enough air from circulating. This disease is congenital and degenerative. Its main symptoms are a recurrent cough, strange noises when breathing, and gasping.
Known as Aussies, these terriers combine their natural charisma with a strong personality. Don't let their size fool you: if you have one of these specimens at home you will feel like a lion is taking care of you. The Australian Terrier is protective of his family, but especially with those who need him most. Read on to learn more about this breed.
Although they have British lineage, this variety was developed in Oceania. These little guys are descended from the Broken Coated Terrier, popular in the provinces of New South Wales and Victoria. Among its ancestors are the Scottish Terrier, the Dandie Dimont, the Yorkshire, and the Skye Terrier.
Considered Australia's first indigenous breed, they were the first dogs to be recognized in the land of kangaroos. Strong-tempered and unparalleled bravery, they were bred to deal with the area's wildlife, from large rodents to snakes. They were also employed as guards, herders, and sometimes as the only company for settlers in the inhospitable territory.
This type of dog is compact as well as robust, although it tends to be longer than it is tall. It has a strong, arched neck, a straight, sturdy back, and a moderately deep chest. The tail is set high.
The legs are short and stocky, with broad, muscular hindquarters. The hocks are well angulated, reaching almost to the ground. The feet are small, round, and tight.
On the other hand, the head is long and strong. The skull is flat and moderately broad, while the snout is straight-barreled and has a powerful bite. The eyes are small, oval, and well separated from each other. They have dark colors and mischievous expressions. The ears are rather small and end at a point.
As for the coat, they have a double coat with a short and soft inner fleece. The outer hair is straight, rough to the touch and usually grows to about 6 cm in length. It is more abundant in the collar area and shorter on the snout, on the feet, and behind the legs. The standard shades are steel or grayish blue, which can have tan markings on the face, ears, and belly, as well as sand or red. White spots are not desirable.
No terrier lacks attitude and Aussies are no exception. These dogs are usually very attached to their family, so it is common for their character to be a reflection of the people with whom they live.
Perhaps because of his protective nature, he shows a greater affinity with the most vulnerable. Children, the elderly, and people with special abilities are among their favorites. They are good playmates, so they will get along with children of any age. They are also very tolerant, although they also have their limit for mischief.
These dogs have absolute confidence in themselves and believe they are bigger than they are. They tend to be territorial and dominant with other breeds, especially if they are males. A good thing is that they can learn to respect smaller animals, such as cats or rabbits, as long as they have grown up together.
Socialization is essential to achieve balanced adults. They also need firm and consistent training. For them to take you into account, you must offer them varied exercises and constant challenges. Remember: a motivated terrier is an obedient terrier.
Since they are lively and energetic, these dogs require two to three daily walks. They can adapt to living in a flat, as long as their needs are met. During outings they must be on a leash for two reasons: the first is that they can be aggressive towards other dogs, the second is that they tend to chase other small animals.
A house with a patio is the best way to keep them entertained, although you must be careful that they do not run away after the first prey they detect. If you have a well-kept garden, define the area where you do not want it to dig.
Either way, don't let him spend long periods on his own. They may develop separation anxiety and begin to bark constantly or break everything around them.
His coat is easy to maintain. To get rid of tangles, brushing should be done thoroughly once a week. It is essential to control the hairs that grow near the eyes and cut them to avoid eye irritation. Also, the ears should be checked frequently for infections.
This dog gets very little dirty because its coat has a special oil that repels dirt. Therefore, bathrooms are only necessary when they are very dirty. Take a good look at the soap you use, because if it is not the right one, it can weaken the natural protection of your skin.
Among the most frequent conditions of the Australian Terrier, we find patellar luxation, a problem in the knee joints, along with Legg-Calvé-Perthes syndrome. The latter disease causes necrosis of the head of the femur and usually appears between 4 and 12 months of age.
Aussies also tend to suffer from diabetes in adulthood. They can also be affected by allergies or skin rashes. Eyecare is also essential so that they do not develop chronic infections that compromise their vision.
The Italian Greyhound is a great companion dog that brings us the typical characteristics of greyhounds but in a very small size. If you are thinking of getting one, discover below the curiosities of the breed.
Unfortunately, the Italian Greyhound, even though it is a dog of excellent qualities and holds the title of the smallest greyhound in the world, is not very widespread outside of Italy, its country of origin, where it is not abundant either. This fact can hinder the chances of getting a copy.
On the other hand, for lovers of ancient breeds, it is worth knowing that the beginnings of the Italian Greyhound go back even to 6000 years ago. This data is based on findings of artistic representations that, in Egypt, showed a dog considered sacred and antecedent of the current Italian Greyhound.
In general, Greyhound dogs have a reputation for being timid and skittish. These characteristics are also present in the Italian Greyhound, which is why it is recommended to offer it good socialization to get it used to different environments and people. But, in addition, this little Galgo tends to get stressed in environments where there is movement.
Although they are quite active and like to run, curiously, at home, they will prefer tranquility. It should be provided to avoid causing stress, which would end up triggering behavioral problems.
First of all, if we have the opportunity to meet or live with a specimen of this breed, we will be struck by its extreme sensitivity. With this term, we do not refer to its low tolerance to cold, but its character. They are very sensitive dogs, which means that we must be very careful when handling them.
Thus, we cannot educate them in any way or use shouting, punishment, or much less violence. We must try to be as sensitive as they are, treat them delicately, and always from positive education based on reinforcing with rewards the behaviors that we want to be repeated.
Otherwise, we will be spoiling the bond of trust that must always be established between the dog and its caregiver. In other words, he will be afraid of us. In this aspect, interactions with children must be controlled, since, in some cases, they can be too abrupt for the sensitivity of the Italian Greyhound.
The breed standard marks very characteristic ears that receive curious names. They are inserted very high, are relatively small, and are made up of fine cartilage. The curious thing is that they are arranged folded on themselves and backward.
Also, when the dog shows attention, the ears are raised from the base, while the lobe is arranged laterally and horizontally. This position they adopt leads to their being called "flying ears" or "propeller ears".
We must be very careful if we intend to let our Italian Greyhound loose. He must be perfectly educated before we dare to take the step of removing the leash. We say it because it is really fast. Not as fast as the larger Greyhounds, but he does have the tremendous speed for such a small dog.
Hence the importance of avoiding escapes, since it could start running and it would be impossible for us to catch it if we tried to chase it. That is why we must never forget that, although very small in size, it is quite a Greyhound that has been used in races.
The Italian Greyhound occupies the 60th position in the list prepared by psychologist Stanley Coren in the 1990s. It must be said that his classification comprises 79 positions, ordered from higher to lower intelligence. In other words, the Italian Greyhound would not stand out as particularly intelligent, but you have to know how to interpret Coren's work.
This is based on qualifying intelligence, let's say, functional, according to parameters of obedience. Assess how many times the dog needs to repeat an order to execute it. The Italian Greyhound would require quite a few repetitions to do what is asked of it. We could say that it is a somewhat distracted dog that will demand more work from us.
That is why it would be more advisable that we have some previous experience in handling dogs and knowledge of canine psychology before deciding to share life with an Italian Greyhound. It must be remembered that their education, in addition to persevering, must be delicate so as not to damage their sensitivity.
Getting a purebred Italian Greyhound is not exactly cheap, perhaps because they are not too widespread either outside or inside their country of origin. Puppies can reach well over $ 1000. If we opt for an adult specimen, we can find it for less money.
It is indeed possible to buy a cheap Italian Greyhound, but normally these dogs come from individuals or unprofessional breeders. The recommendation, if we are determined to buy, is to always go to serious breeders to guarantee the health of the dogs and avoid their exploitation by unscrupulous people.
Very good-natured, the Whippet is a happy dog whether he is going on a fast run or curled up for hours in front of a good fire. Its small size and friendly temperament make it suitable for family life.
The Whippet comes from the UK. Its origin dates back to the 19th century. It was a race dedicated to hunting and racing, taking advantage of its outstanding speed. These dogs, thanks to their good eyesight, detected the prey, chased it, caught it, and killed it.
Rabbit racing was a very popular sporting activity at the time, especially in the north of the UK. Terrier-type dogs used to appear in the competition. To improve their acceleration they began to crossbreed with small-sized greyhounds.
The result was the current Whippet, which was the dog of the most popular classes. Today he continues to participate in these activities, but we also find him in many homes as a companion dog.
They are strong and balanced dogs of small size and elegant and stylized shapes. Their design makes them especially suitable for racing. In short distances, they reach 65 km/hour. The head, flattened at the top, is elongated and thin, tapering towards the nose. The stop is light. The jaw is strong, with a scissor bite.
The eyes are oval, bright, and brown. The look is lively, calm, and shy. The ears are small and rose-shaped. They are mobile and thin. The neck is long, muscular, and arched. The loin is wide, firm, and strong. The chest is very deep and has ample room for the heart. The ribs are arched and the abdomen retracted.
The legs, straight and strong, are well muscled. The feet are oval, with thick pads and strong nails. The tail is long and sharp. Reminds of a whip. Watch out for the swipe of his tail! In a relaxed state, he carries it between his legs, moving upwards. The coat is short, fine, and tight. All colors and combinations are accepted.
It is an ideal dog that adapts perfectly to family life, but it has two personalities: at home, it will enjoy lying down and resting on the sofa or in bed and spending time with its handlers. But, on the outside, his delicate appearance gives way to a true hunting dog, strong, brave, and, above all, successful.
Therefore, they are calm, while being active and playful. In other words, to be calm at home they need to burn off their energy first. They are kind, balanced, and affectionate dogs with their family. They bark only when there is a reason. With strangers, it is normal for them to be shy. They are very good at living with children.
They usually get along with their peers and are not aggressive at all. It is important to provide them with socialization and education to avoid problems since they maintain the instinct to chase small animals. Fortunately, they are also considered obedient and trainable dogs with time and patience. Of course, never resort to violence.
They can live in an apartment as long as they have the opportunity to exercise, as they are active dogs. About three walks a day and at least one long walk of approximately one hour are essential. In addition, excursions to the mountains, the beach, etc. are recommended. They also need a safe space where they can run loose regularly.
We must monitor the temperature since they do not tolerate cold well. Their coat is short, their skin thin and they hardly have any protective fat. Therefore they cannot live abroad. At home, you will see them curled up in the warmest place. You have to provide them with a comfortable and soft bed. They do not usually like to lie on hard ground.
To go outside they may need clothing against the cold and rain. On the other hand, his coat hardly requires care. You can give him a mitten from time to time. They give off very little odor. But, on the other hand, you have to watch and protect your skin. Being so thin it is prone to damage. Do not use brushes that can hurt it.
It is a healthy breed, in general, although a certain propensity to suffer eye, hormonal and blood disorders are reported. As a point of attention, we can talk about your skin. Being so fine, it must be protected.
The veterinarian is the one who can best advise us on the necessary products. The Whippet must be kept safe from both the sun and the cold. As for the psychological aspect, it is a sensitive dog that develops a great attachment to his family.
For this reason, they do not tolerate being separated from their caregivers or spending too much time alone. Loneliness and, also, lack of physical activity can end up causing behavioral problems. These are resolved by experts in canine behavior or ethologists.
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